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COMICS

A comic book or comicbook, also called comic magazine or simply comic, is a visual medium used to express ideas via images, often combined with text or visual information.


Comic book history

According to many experts, the precursors to modern comics were the satirical works of artists like Rudolph Töpffer, Wilhelm Busch, Christopher, or Angelo Agostini (first Brazilian comic artist).

The Adventures of Obadiah Oldbuck

The Adventures of Obadiah Oldbuck

Töpffer, in 1827, in Switzerland, created a comic strip and continued on to publish seven graphic novels. In 1837, “The Adventures of Obadiah Oldbuck” was published by Töpffer and it is considered the earliest known comic book. In 1842 it became the first comic book ever published in the United States.

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Max und Moritz

 

In 1859, the German poet and artist, Wilhelm Busch published caricatures in the newspaper Fliegende Blätter. In 1865, he published a famous comic called “Max und Moritz“.

Yellow kid

Yellow kid

The 1895 “Yellow Kid“, created by Richard Outcaulthas, has often been cited as being the first comic strip. The reason being is that Outcault was the first artist to use the balloon, an outlined space on the page where what the characters spoke was written. However, comic strips and comic books were published before “Yellow Kid” debuted in the New York City newspaper “The World”. Anyway we should also consider that comics theorists and historians have seen precedents for comics in the Lascaux cave paintings in France (some of which appear to be chronological sequences of images), Egyptian hieroglyphs, Trajan’s Column in Rome, the 11th-century Norman Bayeux Tapestry, the 1370 bois Protat woodcut, the 15th-century Ars moriendi and block books, Michelangelo’s The Last Judgment in the Sistine Chapel, and William Hogarth’s 17th-century sequential engravings, amongst others

Comics are not only american

The European, American and Japanese comics traditions have followed different paths. Europeans have seen their tradition as beginning with the  Töpffer’s comic strips of the 1830s, while Americans have seen the origin of their tradition in Outcault’s 1890s newspaper strip The Yellow Kid, though many Americans have come to recognize Töpffer’s precedence, as we have already said. Japanese comics, on the other hand, had a long prehistory of satirical cartoons and comics leading up to the World War II era.” Manga”, the Japanese term for comics and cartooning, was first popularized by the artist Hokusai in the early 19th century. It is in the post-war era modern Japanese comics began to flourish, when Osamu Tezuka produced a prolific body of work. Towards the close of the 20th century, these three traditions have converged in a trend towards book-length comics: the comics album in Europe, the tankōbon in Japan, and the graphic novel in the English-speaking countries.


 Sources:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comics http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comic_book http://www.ninthart.com/ http://inventors.about.com/od/cstartinventions/a/comics.htm


 

And keep in mind that…

…There are so many types of comic books! In this blog, I will post various articles about them every Tuesday. Plus, if anyone has any requests about some information on artists, their comics, stories, characters or what ever,  write a comment below this article! I will provide you all the information you want! 😉

ANIMATION

Animation is the process of displaying still images in a rapid sequence to create the illusion of movement. These images can be hand drawn, computer generated, or pictures of 3D objects. Though most people associate animation with cartoons, it also has applications in industrial and scientific research. Regardless of the type, the viewer’s body plays a main role in why people see continuous movement instead of a series of quickly changing images.


The origin of the movement of static images can be reconducted to the Voynich manuscript that dates back to between 1404 and 1438. It contains several series of illustrations of the same subject-matter and even few circles that – when spun around the center – would create an illusion of motion.

 

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Phenakistoscope

Phenakistoscope

Zoetrope

Zoetrope

Praxiscope

Praxiscope

The phenakistoscope (1832), zoetrope (1834) and praxinoscope (1877), as well as the common flip book, were early animation devices to produce movement from sequential drawings using technological means, but animation did not develop further until the advent of motion picture film.

These devices produced the appearance of movement from sequential drawings using technological means, but animation did not really develop much further until the advent of cinematography. The cinématographe was a projector, printer, and camera in one machine that allowed moving pictures to be shown successfully on a screen which was invented by history’s earliest film makers, Auguste and Louis Lumière, in 1894.

Cinematographe

Cinematographe


There are three main types of animation: traditional, stop motion, and computer generated. Each can be used to make both 2D or 3D images. There are also other less common forms, many of which focus on using an unusual medium like sand or glass to create the images, as well as combinations of live action and drawings or computer created images.

Traditional animation

Traditional animation

Traditional animation:  involves drawing every frame of a film by hand. After all the drawings are completed and colored, they can be photographed or scanned into a computer and then combined with sound on film. The process is extremely time-consuming, since it requires the creation of around 24 drawings per second of film. It’s also labor-intensive, which is why most traditionally animated films are produced by large companies.

Stop motion

Stop motion

Stop motion: in this process, animators manipulate and photograph objects one motion and frame at a time. The objects can be almost anything, ranging from clay figures to paper cut outs to household objects. Some stop motion films use actual people, who hold specific poses for individual frames. After photographing the objects, the photos are then transferred to film and combined with sound, as with the traditional method.

2D animation

2D animation

3D animation

3D animation

Computer generated: Animators can also use computer software to create films and models, which is generally faster than the traditional method. The characters and objects they make can be either two-dimensional or three-dimensional, but the process for creating each type is a little different. For 2D computer generated animation, the animator creates a series of images with each one very slightly different from the last, very similarly to the traditional method. To create 3D images, he or she has to make a model of the character or object. This can be done by creating animation variables, which are points on a computer model that can be moved to create a different posture or look, or by using motion capture, in which a live actor acts the part of the character and his or her motions are recorded and applied to the computer-created model.


Sources: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Animation
http://www.wisegeek.org/what-is-animation.htm
http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/A/animation.html